What Zone is good for?¶
Usually access to the services controlled by the attributes of lower layers of the ISO/OSI model, like IP addresses or ports. Zorp has an extra feature compared with other firewall suites. There is a possibility to define sets of IP subnetworks, called Zone.
Zones group IP subnetworks that administratively belong together. What is it good for? In this way an administrative hierarchy can be created that is independent from the network topology, reflecting only the network policy. Imagine the situation when all those who are permitted to access an FTP servers for upload not belongs to the same IP subnet. In this case we would have to add at least two IP based rules to our network policy. If we use Zorp we only have to add necessary IP subnetworks to the necessary zone.
Other notable feature of zones, that they can be linked to a tree hierarchy. Access control rights are inherited between the levels of the zone tree. A top-level access is in effect in the lower levels as long as it is not blocked. For instance a top-level access can be the right to download from FTP servers. When a group of users should have special rights. These special rights can be granted in the lower levels of the zone tree.
How Zone can be configured?¶
The simplest way to define a Zone to write the followings to the configuration file
policy.py. It defines an empty Zone, which has not contain any subnetwork, but can be referred from the firewall rules by its name
zone. Obviously it is not so useful, but it is simple as we promised.
As it has already mentioned a Zone groups the administratively belonging IP subnetworks together, so we have to define these subnetworks somehow to give meaning to the Zone. It can be done by creating the
Zone class with additional
addrs parameter, which value must be an iterable object, which contains IP subnetworks in CIDR notation.
Zone(name='intra.devel', addrs=['10.1.0.0/16', 'fec0:1::/24']) Zone(name='intra.it', addrs=['10.2.0.0/16', 'fec0:2::/24'])
How Zone works?¶
As it has also mentioned a Zone can refer another Zone as its parent, which makes possible to create a tree from the Zone s. This tree represents the administrative hierarchy of our network. When a Rule refers to a parent Zone in the hierarchy it implicitly refers to the whole subtree. It practically means that we accept a special kind of traffic in a parent Zone it will be accepted all of its child Zone s also.
Zone(name='intra', addrs=['10.0.0.0/8', 'fec0::/16']) Zone(name='intra.devel', admin_parent='intra', addrs=['10.1.0.0/16', 'fec0:1::/24']) Zone(name='intra.it', admin_parent='intra', addrs=['10.2.0.0/16', 'fec0:2::/24'])
If the Zone hierarchy above is defined and we create a Rule which accepts for example the HTTP traffic from the Zone
intra it also accepts the HTTP traffic from
intra.it and any other Zone will be crated in the future which defined as the child of
intra independently from the fact that subnetworks of parent and child Zone s contains each other or not.
Identical IP subnetworks – same IP and mask pair – cannot be added to different Zone explicitly (by
addrs property of
Zone class). It considered invalid configuration and rejected by Zorp.
What Rule is good for?¶
There is no firewall without access control and Zorp is no exception to this rule. When an access control policy is being created, we first have to find answers to the “who”, “what” and “how” - questions. Resources should be accessible only for a specific group of users under the defined conditions.
How Rule works?¶
The Rule answers to the “who”, “what” and indirectly the “how” questions.
Who and What?¶
The “who” and the “what” questions can be answered by a set of traffic properties. A specific Rule matches to a certain traffic when the parameters what were given to the Rule match to the traffic.
In the example above the Rule matches to any kind of traffic which target the port destination 53. In other words it grants access to any name server on the internet. It works only when protocol is TCP or UDP, because port is not defined in case of other protocols (for example IGRP), but we can add another conditions to the Rule to make the rule definite.
Rule(service='service_dns', proto=(socket.IPPROTO_TCP, socket.IPPROTO_UDP), dst_subnet='220.127.116.11/32', dst_port=53)
As it can be seen multiple conditions can be defined, so the “who” and the “what” can be answered at the same time. The questions are what kind of conditions can be set, what is the relation between the different type of conditions, what is the relation between the items of a certain condition.
First of all list the possible conditions parameters of a Rule. As you can see there are 8 different type of conditions, which can be set independently from each other. If more than one condition is given the rule matches only if the logical conjunction of the conditions matches. If there is more than one value in a specific condition there is logical disjunction between them.
- VPN id (
- source interface (
- protocol (
- protocol type (
- protocol subtype (
- source port (
- destination port (
- source subnetwork (
- source zone (
- destination subnetwork (
- destination interface (
- destination zone (
In the complex rule example above the Rule matches when the protocol of the traffic is
UDP and the destination address is
18.104.22.168 and the destination port is
53. In general we can say if we want a more restrictive Rule we have to add a new condition, if want a more permissive rule we have to add a new value to an existing condition.
In contrast to the Netfilter where the first matching rule takes effect, in case of Zorp the best matching rule takes effect. It entails that the order of the rules is irrelevant. When a new connection is occurred the evaluation will check each rule against the parameters of the traffic to find the best one.
The word best in the expression best match means that the more accurate rule will take affect. The accuracy of a Rule depends on two thing, the evaluation order of the conditions and the accuracy of the specific condition in the Rule.
- Evaluation order
- There is a precedence between the different condition types, which determines the order of the evaluation. It means if a rule has a condition with higher precedence it considers better that the other one. The condition list enumerates over the conditions in top to bottom in descending precedence. It practically means that a rule with a destination subnetwork condition is always better than a rule with destination zone condition and both of them are worse than a rule with a source zone condition and so on ...
- Condition scope
- If two rule are considered to be identical – in other words they have conditions with the same precedence – the value of the conditions determines which one considered to be better. In general a narrower is always better than a wide scope, which means an IP subnetwork with greater prefix value, a port number instead of a port range, a child zone instead of a parent is more specific, so the rule with it is considered better.
How Rule can be configured?¶
Lets imagine the situation when we want to grant access to any kind of FTP server on the internet in read-only mode for everyone in our local network (
10.0.0.0/8), but we have to grant read-write access to a specific server (
22.214.171.124) and for a certain department (
10.10.0.0/16) of our organization. How can we use the best match to fulfill the requirements?
First of all solve the general requirement, which is the read-only access to any FTP server for everyone from our subnet. It can be done by a rule which contains two explicit and an implicit condition and an action. The explicit conditions are about the destination port, namely
21, the standard FTP port, and the source subnetwork, namely
10.0.0.0/8 which is our private network in the example. The implicit condition is about the destination subnetwork that does not appear in the rule, which means it matches independently from the destination of the traffic. The action can be set by the
service parameter of the rule which is
service_ftp_read_only in this case.
Rule(service='service_ftp_read_only', dst_port=21) Rule(service='service_ftp_read_write', dst_subnet='126.96.36.199/32', dst_port=21) Rule(service='service_ftp_read_write', src_subnet='10.10.0.0/16', dst_port=21)
The second requirement was to grant read-write access to a specific server (
188.8.131.52). It can be done by a rule matches “better” to the traffic than the previous one. As the second rule has a condition to the destination subnetwork (
dst_subnet), while the first one has not, it considered to more specific, so it is a “better” match.
The third requirement was to grant read-write access for a department (
10.10.0.0/16) of our organization to any FTP server. It is also possible by adding a new rule with a condition to the source subnetwork (
src_subnet) with the necessary value (
The question arises, what is the best match to a traffic which comes from the subnetwork
10.10.0.0/16 and its destination is the address
184.108.40.206, as in this case each rule matches. As we have already mentioned the second and the third one more specific than the first, so the first one cannot be the bast match. Inasmuch source subnetwork condition has higher precedence than the destination subnetwork the second rule will be the best match.
What service is good for?¶
The service answers the earlier mentioned “how” question, as it determines what exactly happens with the traffic, whether it is analyzed in the application layer of the ISO/OSI model or not, rejected or accepted. After the best matching rule has found, an instance of a service set in the rule starts to handle the new connection.
How service works?¶
There are three different service types in Zorp with completely different functionality and configuration.
- Transfers packet-filter level services, so if you want to transfer connections on the packet-filter level only, and you do not want analyze application-level traffic making decisions based on it, use
PFService. It provides better performance, as the decision about the traffic can be made in kernel space by KZorp, without the assistance of the user space firewall (Zorp) itself.
- Transfers application-level (proxy) services, so if you want to transfer connections on the application-level to make possible audit, analysis, restriction or modification, use
Service. It does not provide as good performance as
PFService, since the decision about the traffic cannot be made in kernel space (KZorp), it also requires the assistance of the Zorp, that runs in the user space, which makes deeper and also more resource-consuming operations.
New in version 3.9.8: The
Rejects the connections in a predefined way. In general, it can be used to handle the exceptions in your policy. If you have a general rule that grants access to any FTP servers from any subnetwork, but you want to make an exception (for example there is a prohibited server), you can create a more specific rule (with the server address in
dst_subnetcondition) that rejects the traffic as it is set in the
How service can be configured?¶
Minimal configuration of a service depends on its type, but at least it must contain a name. The
name parameter is used to refer to the service from another object (for example from a rule).
With the defaults of the additional parameters,
PFServicetransfers the traffic through the firewall in the packet-filter level without passing it to the user space (just like in Netfilter).
In case of
proxy_classparameter is also mandatory. This is the most important parameter in the point of view of a proxy firewall, while its value determines what will happen with the traffic in the application layer.
New in version 3.9.8: The
With the defaults of the additional parameters,
DenyServicedrops the traffic silently (just like
DROPtarget in Netfilter).
As it has already been mentioned earlier the network traffic analysis can take place at the application level. To perform that, Zorp implements application level protocol analyzers. These analyzers are called proxies in the terminology of Zorp. Proxies are written in C, and they are extendable and configurable in Python.
What proxy is good for?¶
Any kind of application level protocol analysis, restriction, modification can be done by proxy.
How proxy works?¶
Zorp contains several proxies which can be used without any improvement or modification to work on the application level traffic.
- Proxies to analyze widely used protocols
- Proxies to analyze rarely used protocols.
- As its name shows it does nothing else, but to plug the client and server connection. It has all the benefits that other proxies have, except the protocol analysis.
- It is a simple proxy like the Plug proxy with a Python interface. It makes it possible to do anything with the application level network traffic which can be done by the help of the Python language, while the lower layers of the connection is handled by Zorp. For instance if the proxy to our favorite protocol is not implemented yet in Zorp we have the possibility to perform application level analysis manually.
As it is mentioned each proxy is configurabe and extendable in Python. It means each proxy represented as a class in Python and the system administrator can inherit his own Python class from that to override the behavior of the parent class. A derived class inherits everything from the base class, which is necessary for the protocol analysis, so the system administrator has to care about his specific problem. For instance to change a value of a header in the HTTP protocol needs only an extra line of code over the lines related to the Python inheritance mechanism.
General SSL Handling¶
General SSL handling follows from the fact, that transport layer security is an independent subsystem in Zorp. It means, that SSL/TLS parameters can be set independently from the fact, that we perform protocol analysis or not. Consequently not only HTTP, FTP, SMTP and POP3 proxies are SSL capable, but also the Plug and the AnyPy proxies. Server and client side SSL parameters can also be set independently. So it is possible to encrypt on the client side, but not on the server side and vice versa. Of course both of the sides can be encrypted.
Zorp is a proxy firewall, neither more nor less, but can be used to do tasks other than protocol analysis, such as virus scanning or spam filtering by integrating it with external applications. For instance in case of the HTTP protocol Zorp can forward responses to a virus scanner software. After that depending on the result of the scan Zorp can accept or reject the original request.
How proxy can be configured?¶
Zorp proxy classes can be implemented or customized in Python language. As the following example show the only thing we have to do is deriving a new class from the necessary base class (
HttpProxy) and customizing its behaviour.
from Zorp.Http import * class HttpProxyHeaderReplace(HttpProxy): def config(self): HttpProxy.config(self) self.request_header["User-Agent"] = (HTTP_HDR_CHANGE_VALUE, "Forged Browser 1.0")
The example above only a demonstration of a customization, it is uncommented now, we will back to later.
An instance groups the rules and services belonging in some way together and separates the resulting groups from each other.
What instance is good for?¶
It makes possible the independent
- modification of the elements of (for example: rules, services)
- parameters passing to (for example: log level, thread limit)
- control (for example start, stop, reload) of
- monitor (for example memory usage, thread number) of
- get statistics (for example connection information, thread rate) from
How instance works?¶
An instance is represented as a process at the level of the operating system. In order of the list above an instance
- represented as a function in configuration (see also)
- can have separate configuration file
- runs as a separate process, so
- can be controlled separately (see also)
- can be monitored separately (see also)
- can have separate statistical informations (see also)
New in version 3.9.2: The
An instance can be run as several processes which can provide better performance on multi-core processors.
How instance can be configured?¶
Arguments of the process can be set in the
instances.conf where each line represents an instance. The line begins with the name of the instance followed by the command line arguments of the Zorp process and after two dashes (
--) the argument
of the Zorp controller application named
default_instance --verbose 3 --policy /etc/zorp/policy.py -- --num-of-processes 1
Zorp instance represented as a function in the configuration file
policy.py. Any object related to the instance declared inside this function.
from Zorp.Http import * def instance(): Service(name='service', proxy_class=HttpProxy) Rule(dst_port=80, service='service')